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The Brazilian concept of "white race" might be somewhat different from the concept of "white race" in other countries since race is seen in a spectrum, with different races being perceived as assorted series of continua, but the same concepts can be found in other New World countries or former European colonies like Australia.According to another autosomal DNA study (from 2009) conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro the "whites" from a sample of just 90 students (who thought of themselves as "very mixed") were found to carry very little Amerindian or African admixtures (generally about 90% European in ancestry on average).The most recent census in 2010, showed a shift in mentality, where mixed Brazilians whose DNA might have European markers in a range spanning from 70% to 85%, overwhelmingly chose to identify with their mixed racial background, rather than white.These backgrounds being predominantly Caboclo or mestiço, known in the Spanish-speaking world as Mestizo and Castizo for the most part, but also black and white mix, or black plus Native plus white, what in the past was known as Octoroon, as well as Romani or Gipsy, Anusim or Dutch and Lusitanian Crypto Jew, and Eurasian or Hāfu and ainoko.In contrast to some countries, like the United States or South Africa, which tried to avoid miscegenation, even imposing anti-miscegenation laws, in Brazil, miscegenation was always legal.What was expected was that miscegenation would eventually turn all Brazilians into whites.As a result of that desire of whitening its own population, the Brazilian ruling classes encouraged the arrival of massive European immigration to the country.
When Brazilians answer to open-ended questions about race, up to 143 different race-color terms are brought.
The "pardos" were found to have a European ancestry on average of 80% (autosomal ancestry) However this study, a random sample of 90 students, 30 of whom had classified themselves as white, 30 as brown, and 20 as black, although important in understanding racial categorizations in Brazil in no way represents the genetic makeup of the entire population of this nation that is the fifth largest in the world by territory and whose different regions were populated by different ethnic groups during different historical periods.
The degree of miscegenation in Brazil varies according to region, being particularly high in the Northeast region, the first to receive large European waves during the colonial period; Brazil was originally colonised only by a few families of Portuguese settlers in the first decades of the 16th century, with some French families included; instead there were many mostly Portuguese individual male adventurers, who tended to reproduce with Amerindian females at first and later with African females, even though the Crown had sent female orphans under royal custody during the colonial period to marry Portuguese male settlers; with noblemen marrying the ones whose fathers had died serving abroad in the military especially in Asian colonies.
The survey asked respondents if they had any ancestors who were European, African or Amerindian.
As much as 52% of those whites reported they have some non-European ancestry: 23% reported to have some Black African ancestry and 29% reported Amerindian ancestry (15% of them reported to have both).
The most common is "moreno", a category that refers to a wide spectrum of phenotypes.